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VAN [J. KUHN, W. Advanced national certificate mathematics, vols. De Week. Taliesin Pendragon Cycle Ser. An original article from the Quarterly Review, Main Currents in American Thought Vol. Ronde van Midsland. Een verkenning van het dorp en haar omgeving. Geschichte des ersten Cistercienserklosters in Deutschland - Letters of The Empress Frederick. The Latin poetry of Andrew Marvell.

On the Absorption of Pigment by Bacteria. A rare original article from the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Hannelore Knuts aka UltraMegaLore. April May Great Pictures. A Magazine of Art, Literature and Criticism. VI, No. Ensayo Critico. La Poesia Di Eugenio Montale. March 2, March 6 February 23, Lewis, Administrator to Estate Mrs. Lorenzo Lewis. February 6, John A. One 1 I. A de geillustreerde geschiedenis van de 20e eeuw.

Why Lenin? Why Stalin? Leon Stynen Een Architect. Antwerpen Augustiner-Museum Rattenberg 7. Mai bis 9. Une solution sociale pour le centre historique de Bologne. Primo tentativo di un catalogo generale delle monete medievali e moderne coniate in Italia o da italiani in altri paesi. Volume I. Casa Savoia. Veneto, Toscana, Lazio. Rassegna grafico umoristica di critica e di costume. Mr Pink Whistles Party.. Voran geht eine Abhandlung des Religionslehrers Dr. Hop, Step, Jump: Sallys Way.

Passione incompiuta. Scritti sulla musica Storia di Cuba. RICE, A. French, M. Il corteo dei carri infiorati. Castel del Monte. MROZ, M. Divine Vengeance Studies in Shakespeare, No. Who Betrays Elizabeth Bennet? Oxford World's Classics. From New York Tuesday, August 19, To Hamburg via Cherbourg and Southampton.

A rare original article from the Edinburgh Review, Wide Awake at Three A. Starman: To Reach the Stars. Martin Heidegger als godsdienstwijsgeer. Perine, Charles A. Schieren, Levi Z. Leiter, Dr. Practical Remarks on Croup. Sotoba Komachi; 2.

Yoroboshi; 3. Le tambourin de soie; 4. Aoi; 5. Programme seulement! Recipes from the Orkney Islands. The end of the Old Regime in Europe. The first crisis. AHO, C. LOO, C. Verzameling van officieele stukken behoorende bij de geschiedenis der Zuid-Afrikaansche republiek aan het volk verteld door C. Navy, Part 1 Early Designs - Motivation and Productivity.

Het Pilgrim Fathers Complot. DATE, C. Photographies de Franz Villiger. Die Arabische Welt und Europa. Paul Klee. Pony Magazine Annual BELL, W. Ziegeler Melbourne's Clockmaker. Patrick : St. Secundinus Hymn on St. The Apology. Dichter und Staat. There is room for interpretation, which changes how people respond to the situational perception of hardship. For example, the security provided by a social welfare state which has taken on the provision of many forms of support, thus ensuring help, is available in such a wide array of situations that this may restrain one from helping others.

As a result, many drivers will drive past an accident site not only when they see an ambulance is at hand, but also when no ambulance has arrived yet, since they know that the duty to provide aid has been delegated to professional service providers paramedics, police, tow truck services. Nonetheless, many accident victims remain reliant on first aid assistance from bystanders until an ambulance arrives.

The knowledge that social assistance will be provided by rescue services can hinder a spontaneous reaction to provide help in response to the perception of hardship - this again underlines that the first level of intuitive perception draws its certainty as to content from the second level of rational interpretation, where we address the other human being as a fellow-creature, as brother or sister. Christians may help, like the Samaritan, even if this goes against societal expectations and thus leads to a lack of understanding from others.

However, what is the problem then? It lies in the question: Who are the ones who have fallen into the robbers' hands today? One can, of course, quickly list many examples of cases of emergencies which happen in the private domain and affect entire regions. There is a strong solidarity on behalf of fellow citizens affected by natural tragedies such as a tsunami or flooding.

Modern welfare systems help countless people in distress or with special needs. From a scientific and diaconal perspective, however, one will also want to tend to the poorest of the poor, to the people on the fringes of society, to the fellow citizens who lead hidden lives in the twilight zones unnoticed by others. Poverty, HIV et cetera, are well known, but at the same time are they neither adequately represented in public life and discourse, nor is there an adequate response to such evils.

In order to identify and comprehend social predicaments, the first step is to promote their visibility. If we take the example of poverty, this means making visible the enormous extent and implications of poverty, publicising the multi-layered problems of those who are typically thrown together under the collective term poor.

The collective term suggests a loss of respect for the individual and a contempt for and failure to notice the individual predicaments of those thus labelled. While both individual situations of hardship and discourses of scandalisation appear in the media from time to time, these only produce periodic, short-lived expressions of deep sorrow.

In principle, such processes are also subject to complicated entanglements between the public arena of politics and the media in which 'whatever is not communicated socially, does not exist in a way' Maaser One could also say that only the hardship which is displayed and noticed in the public arena is actually perceived as existing in society. Whoever is not placed at the forefront of public attention in this way will not be provided with adequate attention and care.

Thus, diaconal action as expression of Christian love in complex societies not only means meeting someone's basic needs, but can also mean to learn to perceive the hardship, to look for and to find the suffering neighbour in the first place. Michael Winkler recognises new forms and 'formations of isolation', even for rich societies such as the Federal Republic of Germany: active isolation is being replaced by the social invisibility of the isolated.

The dilemmas of entire segments of society are not being addressed. And finally, the isolation itself moves 'out of focus while being watched. It becomes visible as distress, which is being overlooked at the same time' Winkler As a result, the isolated are 'right in the middle of things, but even less worth than socially worthless: they are, quite literally, existences that don't exist' Winkler Perhaps a parable can be applied to this situation.

Like the shepherd who seeks the one lost sheep Mt , diaconal action as expression of Christian love seeks those who are lost in the confusion of modern societies; it goes to the fringes of the social order, and crosses boundaries in order to find those whose fate remains unmentioned within the grey zones and rifts of differentiated societies. It is worth pointing out in passing that this has consequences for the church as well: We must step out of the walls of our own church community towards a form of community work that reaches out.

The option for the excluded becomes real in the street, not in sacred halls cf. Richard Gustavo Gutierrez has also indicated that 'to be a neighbour' does not say anything about physical closeness, but is an active act: '[T ]he result of taking action, of approaching. Political aspects of love as an expression of the diaconal dimension of the church. At the social level, however, the answer to this question is not so apparent at all.

The way it is answered is already a factor in itself, which decides upon social hardship see discussion below on who defines what poverty is. Churches often react and help those whose situation cries out for help cf. Of course, this is a very valuable contribution which is to be acknowledged.

However, I noted above that social hardship is not as obvious as one might imagine. Therefore the questions: 'Who interprets social emergencies? Here love has a specific function and - at the same time -reaches a significant limit. Firstly, with regard to its specific function: Love now requires 'developing or newly implementing a sensorium for the disadvantaged people of the legal systems', by taking the neighbour's concrete needs into account, and by being oriented towards the neighbour's best interests Schmidt Love wants to perceive the other as fellow creature, as human being, whom God loves and who is entrusted to us as a human being in order to love him.

Love will treat the legal system from the perspective of the disadvantaged by means of this sensorium, thus becoming a critical corrective to such a system Schmidt This is the specific function of love in the formation of and the debate about the provision of modern social services. In other words: Christian love will insist that social participation of excluded people will be achieved step by step. This requires that the diaconal dimension of the church as expression of Christian love always has to be political as well.

This insight is not anything new. The Old Testament had already formulated the knowledge that love always remains associated with the acting subject; but it also conveys the idea that the law constitutes the right of the person concerned, of the potential victim.

This still holds true today. Caring for people in need is a characteristic of Christian love. This love presses for addressing the causes of social despair, and therefore will always have to become politically active as well, if for no other reason than to make despair publicly visible. As a result, diaconal acting as expression of this love cannot be confined to the church of Jesus or to acts of mercy.

This is a significant limit of love or of acts of mercy out of love. Rather, '[t ]he love of today is the justice of tomorrow' Wolf Love must get involved politically for the benefit of the ones affected in order to safeguard their rights and to retain their dignity. What does such a political-diaconal commitment look like that is close to the affected people?

To illustrate this I would like to turn to an example from Austria, to a campaign waged by the Diaconia of Austria: 'We aren't humble petitioners, we want respect! This was the message of the participants to Austria's first meeting of people in poverty. The meeting took place in Vienna under the slogan 'Becoming visible'. The unemployed, sellers of newspapers for the homeless, people with mental disabilities and special needs, as well as single mothers and immigrants met for three days to share some thoughts on common strategies against poverty, to point out their concerns and to discuss solutions.

This meeting was followed by another campaign at the Second Poverty Conference in Linz in , at which cardboard figures symbolising the struggle of a life under conditions of poverty were set up in the city centre. The figures told the life stories of the people, as well as their wishes and hopes for their lives. Furthermore, the most recent figures were published about the increasing number of welfare recipients, unemployed, low-income employees, children in poverty, and about the situation of people with a mental impairment.

A step to break the silence, as a participant said' Schenk Why are these campaigns important? According to Lister, the term poverty is not to be understood as a definition, but as a concept, which describes the relationship between the poor and the not poor Lister The concept serves to distinguish people living in poverty as 'the others'.

For that, Lister uses the term othering to describe the process in which people in poverty situations are denied the right to define their situation. As a result, they are forced to view themselves from the others' perspectives i. In the process entirely different people are classified as 'poor' for statistical reasons, and this classification is considered more significant than all differences that exist between impoverished pensioners, single mothers, people with a migration background, the unemployed and people with a mental impairment.

The decision on who is socially 'the others' relates to the issue as to who has the power of interpretation. This power lies almost exclusively in the hands of people who are not directly affected by marginalisation or exclusion: journalists, scientists, social experts, civil servants and politicians. The views of the people affected by poverty are ignored in it. Poverty conferences organised by poor people like the ones in Austria, try to modify questionnaires used in other categorisations and classifications and to speak for themselves in public.

By doing so, they start to win basic forms of public representation, from which they are usually excluded. What do campaigns such as 'Becoming visible' by the Diaconia of Austria have to do with Christian love? If one wants to paraphrase the term 'love', then 'deep appreciation' can be an excellent choice as a synonym.

To love a person means to show him or her deep appreciation. This starts off with respect for the other person and his or her life story. It does not command the other, but becomes aware, listens, accommodates. It gives meaning, namely by taking seriously the meaning people give their lives through telling their own story and refusing to become categorised by others. Consequently, the diaconal work of the church should also encompass the opportunity for people in poverty to express their own lives, especially in public, and to experience themselves as being self-determined - at least at this first stage.

This first step is not only a step out of the silence, but also a step forward to regain meaning for their lives. This understanding of love, therefore, is also a renunciation of all forms of paternalistic love, which tells others what is good for them.

At the same time it is clear that this first step will be a waste if the fight against poverty is not waged at the political-structural level Leiprecht Now is the time to run public events organised by the poor respectively by the affected people themselves , to argue about definitions, criticise publicly and initiate public campaigns.

Therefore, diaconal action inevitably has a political dimension in order to stand up for the rights of disadvantaged and excluded people. This remains a challenge for the diaconal dimension of the church. The commitment to love makes diaconal action, time and again, take the view from below and tend to the people who are not able to find their own place in society and are or will be marginalised in the highly complex interactions of modern societies, be it as a result of their lack of education, physical disability or because of structural problems which ostracise the individual from sectors of society.

Love draws our attention to those people who do not fulfil - or do so only in a limited way - the prerequisites for cooperating in societies, and therefore cannot expect anything from a complex society, because they cannot participate in it. The reference point of love is the well-being of one's neighbour. It directs its attention to the needs of the other and by doing so contributes towards his or her concrete situation to formalised procedures such as public debate.

It wants to change concrete conditions that prevent people 'in elementary ways from developing their full potential in life' Fischer It wants people to experience themselves as valued and significant, and to believe in their dignity. It wants to maintain the subjectivity of the affected; it wants to enable people 'to be - and have the authorisation to be - concerned about themselves'; it wants 'to create space With this, deeds of love are an expression of the diaconal dimension of the church that can contribute towards a humane society - this may not be much in the light of all the social predicaments, but to the affected individuals it may mean everything.

The author declares that he has no financial or personal relationships which may have inappropriately influenced him in writing this article. Beigbeder, F. Sogar in der Liebe. Bonhoeffer, D. Zitt eds. Eurich, J.

Fischer, J. Dabrock, T. Maaser eds. Gutierrez, G. Klein, R. Lister, R. Luther, M. Pietsch eds. Luz, U. Moser, M. Wege aus der Armut, Deuticke, Wien. Richard, P. Schenk, M. Schmidt, H. Rose eds. TheiBen, G. Strohm eds. Trillhaas, W. Winkler, M. Bettinger eds. Wolf, E. Wolf, Rechtstheologische Studien, pp. Wyller, T.

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Dog racing betting explained variance Members of other ethnic groups were not included ambrose bettingen party service muenchen or only in ambrose bettingen party service muenchen cases. Poverty, HIV et cetera, are well known, but at the same time are they neither adequately represented in public life and discourse, nor is there an adequate response to such evils. BELL, W. Wolf, E. From a scientific and diaconal perspective, however, one will also want to tend to the poorest of the poor, to the people on the fringes of society, to the fellow citizens who lead hidden lives in the twilight zones unnoticed by others.
Uwin live betting sportsbooks Bettinger eds. Firstly, with regard to its specific function: Love now requires 'developing ambrose bettingen party service muenchen newly implementing a sensorium for the disadvantaged people of the legal systems', by taking the neighbour's concrete needs into account, and ambrose bettingen party service muenchen being oriented towards the neighbour's best interests Schmidt KUHN, W. All that counts is the powerful feeling experienced in this moment, in which people are hopelessly at the mercy of this emotion, yet it does not last. As a result, they are forced to view themselves from the others' perspectives i. In his work Sanatorium Communion, Dietrich Bonhoeffer refers to love in a similar way by also classifying the ecclesial community as a community of love in which all actions are conditioned by Spirit-inspired love.

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Thus he declared to the usurper Maximus, who desired church fellowship, that he would never admit him, unless he should do sincere penance for the murder of the emperor Gratian. When the Roman prefect, Symmachus, the noblest and most eloquent advocate of the decaying heathenism of his time, implored the emperor Valentinian, in an apology for the altar of Victory which stood in the hall of the Roman senate, to tolerate the worship and the sanctuaries of the ancient gods, Ambrose met him with an admirable reply, and prevented the granting of his request.

The most imposing appearance of our bishop against the temporal power was in his dealing with Theodosius, when this truly great, but passionate and despotic, emperor, enraged at Thessalonica for a riot, had caused many thousand innocent persons to be put to death with the guilty, and Ambrose , interesting himself for the unfortunate, like a Nathan with David, demanded repentance of the emperor, and refused him the holy communion. How wilt thou receive with such hands the most holy body of the Lord?

How wilt thou bring to thy mouth his precious blood? Get thee away, and dare not to heap crime upon crime. The emperor actually submitted to ecclesiastical discipline, made public confession of his sin, and did not receive absolution until he had issued a law that the sentence of death should never be executed till thirty days after it was pronounced.

From this time the relation between Ambrose and Theodosius continued undisturbed, and the emperor is reported to have said afterwards with reference to the bishop, that he had recently found the first man who told him the truth, and that he knew only one man who was worthy to be bishop. He died in the arms of Ambrose at Milan in Where unbelief is, there is blindness, but where fidelity is, there is the host of angels. Two years after this, Ambrose himself was fatally sick.

All Milan was in terror. Even Jews and pagans lamented his death. On the night of Easter following many were baptized in the church where his body was exposed Not a few of the newly baptized children saw him seated in the episcopal chair with a shining star upon his head. Even after his death he wrought miracles in many places, in proof of which Paulinus gives his own experience, credible persons, and documents.

Ambrose , like Cyprian before him, and Leo I. As bishop he towered above the contemporary popes. As a theologian and author he is only a star of the second magnitude among the church fathers, yielding by far to Jerome and Augustine.

We have from this distinguished prelate several exegetical, doctrinal, and ascetic works, besides homilies, orations, and letters. In exegesis he adopts the allegorical method entire, and yields little substantial information. Jerome had a contemptuous opinion of his exegetical writings. In the preface to his translation of the thirty-nine Homilies of Origen on Luke, he compares the superficial and meagre Commentary of Ambrose on Luke to the croaking of a raven which makes sport of the colors of all other birds, and yet is itself dark all over totus ipse tenebrosus.

In his Catalogus vir. Augustine , from a sense of gratitude to his spiritual father, always mentions his name with respect. The passages of Augustine on Ambrose are collected in the Selecta veterum testimonia at the beginning of the first tome of the Bened.

But the unfavorable notice of Jerome quoted above is omitted there. The Commentary on the Pauline Epistles Ambrosiaster so called or Pseudo-Ambrosius which found its way among his works, is of uncertain authorship, perhaps the work of the Roman deacon Hilary under pope Damasus, and resembles in many respects the commentaries of Pelagius. Among his doctrinal writings his five books On Faith, three On the Holy Ghost, and six On the Sacraments catechetical sermons on baptism, confirmation, and the eucharist are worthy of mention.

Among his ethical writings the work On Duties is the most important. It resembles in form the well-known work of Cicero on the same subject, and reproduces it in a Christian spirit. It is a collection of rules of living for the clergy, and is the first attempt at a Christian doctrine of morals, though without systematic method. Of his ninety-one Epistles several are of considerable historical interest. In anthropology he forms the transition from the Oriental doctrine to the system of Augustine , whose teacher and forerunner he was.

He is most peculiar in his ethics, which he has set forth in his three books De Officiis. As a pulpit orator he possessed great dignity, force, and unction, and made a deep impression on Augustine , to whose conversion he contributed a considerable share. Many mothers forbade their daughters to hear him lest he should induce them to lead a life of celibacy. Ambrose has also a very important place in the history of worship, and did immortal service for the music and poetry of the church, as in a former section we have seen.

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De Week. Taliesin Pendragon Cycle Ser. An original article from the Quarterly Review, Main Currents in American Thought Vol. Ronde van Midsland. Een verkenning van het dorp en haar omgeving. Geschichte des ersten Cistercienserklosters in Deutschland - Letters of The Empress Frederick. The Latin poetry of Andrew Marvell. On the Absorption of Pigment by Bacteria. A rare original article from the Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Hannelore Knuts aka UltraMegaLore.

April May Great Pictures. A Magazine of Art, Literature and Criticism. VI, No. Ensayo Critico. La Poesia Di Eugenio Montale. March 2, March 6 February 23, Lewis, Administrator to Estate Mrs. Lorenzo Lewis. February 6, John A. One 1 I. A de geillustreerde geschiedenis van de 20e eeuw. Why Lenin? Why Stalin? Leon Stynen Een Architect. Antwerpen Augustiner-Museum Rattenberg 7.

Mai bis 9. Une solution sociale pour le centre historique de Bologne. Primo tentativo di un catalogo generale delle monete medievali e moderne coniate in Italia o da italiani in altri paesi. Volume I. Casa Savoia. Veneto, Toscana, Lazio.

Rassegna grafico umoristica di critica e di costume. Mr Pink Whistles Party.. Voran geht eine Abhandlung des Religionslehrers Dr. Hop, Step, Jump: Sallys Way. Passione incompiuta. Scritti sulla musica Storia di Cuba. RICE, A. French, M. Il corteo dei carri infiorati. Castel del Monte.

MROZ, M. Divine Vengeance Studies in Shakespeare, No. Who Betrays Elizabeth Bennet? Oxford World's Classics. From New York Tuesday, August 19, To Hamburg via Cherbourg and Southampton. A rare original article from the Edinburgh Review, Wide Awake at Three A. Starman: To Reach the Stars. Martin Heidegger als godsdienstwijsgeer. Perine, Charles A. Schieren, Levi Z. Leiter, Dr. Practical Remarks on Croup. Sotoba Komachi; 2. Yoroboshi; 3. Le tambourin de soie; 4. Aoi; 5. Programme seulement!

Recipes from the Orkney Islands. The end of the Old Regime in Europe. The first crisis. AHO, C. LOO, C. Verzameling van officieele stukken behoorende bij de geschiedenis der Zuid-Afrikaansche republiek aan het volk verteld door C. Navy, Part 1 Early Designs - Motivation and Productivity. Het Pilgrim Fathers Complot. DATE, C. Photographies de Franz Villiger. Die Arabische Welt und Europa.

Paul Klee. Pony Magazine Annual BELL, W. Ziegeler Melbourne's Clockmaker. Patrick : St. Secundinus Hymn on St. The Apology. Dichter und Staat. Quite Honestly. Amsterdam: E. Maaskamp, [ca ]. Love is a lie! Beigbeder perceives love as very romantic yet remains deeply cynical about its realisation. In his film L'Amour dure trois ans Love lasts three years Beigbeder posed the question as to whether there could be a love that lasts longer than three years and suggests that he considers the question inherently wrong, for it is merely about feeling something at a particular moment.

All that counts is the powerful feeling experienced in this moment, in which people are hopelessly at the mercy of this emotion, yet it does not last. Beigbeder appears to express what many people understand by love today: 'Nobody believes in God any longer, we have no utopias anymore. The last utopia we still have is love' Beigbeder Of course, there are also other notions of love apart from these. For instance, the meaning of love as a form of tender and deep attachment to another person, which can be distinguished by active care for the other and takes on the dimension of solidarity.

In late modernity love for the neighbour is expected of the churches as agents of solidarity. Churches ought to take care of the poorest of the poor. Such convictions are still deeply embodied in society and I shall now turn to them in order to discuss love in ethical terms. Aspects of Christian love in ethical terms. Who loves? Who will be loved? What distinguishes Christian love from other forms of love? When we consider the Christian command to love one's neighbour, we find that these seemingly simple questions cannot be answered that easily.

I would like to work with a basic differentiation with regard to love which appears to me fundamental in relation to ethics. We can differentiate two levels of love: The first describes the emotional level of being moved, the inner emotional stirring which can, but not does have to, include an inner burning desire for another person in the early phase of falling in love. The second level refers to the propositional explication of what one understands love to be. Before we are even confronted with the alternative between what we want to do and what we ought to do, the first level of perception consists of an indivisible unity between being inclined to and being connected to, which leads to an intuitive orientation to engage in a certain action or behaviour towards the other cf.

Fischer f. Thus, we can say that this intuitive orientation towards and sense of connection with another person is based on the concrete experience gained in particular situations and this brings about a certain disposition to engage in certain forms of action and behaviour. This first level, however, needs to be differentiated from the second level, by the propositional explication which is fundamental to the understanding of love and determines what love, in its intuitive impulsivity, is aimed at.

Love in the Christian understanding - like the sphere of morality - can only be understood by the interlacing of these two levels. From the point of view of theological ethics, the substance of love becomes concrete - as perception of my neighbour, of my brother, of the fellow-creature, et cetera -from the Christian symbolisation of life's reality on a 'level of intuitive, prepositional moral perception' Fischer With this in mind, the Christian tradition has sought to tease out the full implications of the term love for the moral focus of Christian existence.

Faith and love are inextricably linked. Martin Luther defined this in a wonderfully concise way when he wrote that:. WA VII The point is the liberty of the believer who has been freed by God from worrying about his own existence that enables him to focus his care on his neighbour out of love. However, what is the good? How is it determined?

The interrelated nature of the above-mentioned two levels is thus based on the fact that the first level of this intuitive 'being oriented towards' needs to be examined constantly to determine whether 'love's sense of orientation is indeed preserved, and the person does not intuitively act in a way that harms another due to problematic consequences and side-effects of love's impulsivity' Fischer Here, it becomes clear that Christian love depends on the critical ability of reason and its substance, and is determined in a discursive way on the second level.

Can the first level then be disregarded? The answer is no, because at the same time, the neighbour is apprehended and accessed intuitively on the first level through direct experience. This can occur, for example, in a personal encounter, or through the medium of a picture, or in a narrative way. As a result the first level also plays a role 'in determining what will benefit the neighbour. Both levels are thus inextricably interlinked' Fischer f.

As a result, according to a Christian understanding, love is oriented towards the consequences of an action. Johannes Fischer points out that 'one should not think of the usual meaning associated with consequentialist ethics. The Protestant faith has a different approach: Luther takes the individual believer and his or her faith as his starting point.

Luther described this pointedly in the sermon on 'good works' in the following way:. The first and the highest, most precious deed is faith in Christ For from this deed all other deeds must emanate and receive the influx of their goodness like a new tenure. WA VI However, if the goodness of an action is not contingent on the consequences of this action, but on the individual believer, an action will radically lose its moral basis:. For love that comes from the liberty of faith does what it does, not because it is 'good' or because it represents a moral value, but entirely because of whom this love is devoted to.

Fischer , emphasis original. It is important to note that this understanding differs from consequentialism. In the Christian understanding consequentialist ethics apply in a limited form only: What makes an action good depends on whether all of life is oriented in terms of faith and love. These state that the consequences of an action should benefit my neighbour:. What 'benefit[s] my neighbour' - and [is] therefore in the service of love - means, [that it] is not fixed and unchanging for all times, but must be re-examined and rediscovered in each era in the light of changing cultural and social circumstances.

Fischer Christian love at the core of diaconal action. Christian love has a cross-border dimension, as we already hear in the narrative of The Good Samaritan Lk One central point of that narrative is transcendence of an ethnocentric ethos in which the moral rules of an ethnic group were applied only to members of that particular group. Members of other ethnic groups were not included - or only in exceptional cases.

The narrative of the Good Samaritan goes beyond such boundaries in such a striking way that Gerd Theifsen ; ff. What makes 'The Good Samaritan' narrative fascinating is how two peoples' perception of the needy individual, leads to different behavioural consequences compared to the perception of the third man, the Samaritan, who breaks with the expectations of society.

Obviously, the perception of the 'other' as a person comes before love for this person , or more accurately, before performing acts of love for this person. This links up with the first level of love, the level of intuitive moral perception. The question: 'But who is my neighbour? This question, in fact, points out that the offer of love always needs to be applied as a general code of behaviour in a concrete context, and that there will be substantive scope for interpretation if this code of behaviour is implemented Klein According to Klein the scribe's question could be rephrased to: 'How should I identify my neighbour?

This analysis presents a problem for diaconal studies. For today the question of who my neighbour is cannot simply be answered by 'anyone who needs help'. There is room for interpretation, which changes how people respond to the situational perception of hardship. For example, the security provided by a social welfare state which has taken on the provision of many forms of support, thus ensuring help, is available in such a wide array of situations that this may restrain one from helping others.

As a result, many drivers will drive past an accident site not only when they see an ambulance is at hand, but also when no ambulance has arrived yet, since they know that the duty to provide aid has been delegated to professional service providers paramedics, police, tow truck services. Nonetheless, many accident victims remain reliant on first aid assistance from bystanders until an ambulance arrives.

The knowledge that social assistance will be provided by rescue services can hinder a spontaneous reaction to provide help in response to the perception of hardship - this again underlines that the first level of intuitive perception draws its certainty as to content from the second level of rational interpretation, where we address the other human being as a fellow-creature, as brother or sister.

Christians may help, like the Samaritan, even if this goes against societal expectations and thus leads to a lack of understanding from others. However, what is the problem then? It lies in the question: Who are the ones who have fallen into the robbers' hands today?

One can, of course, quickly list many examples of cases of emergencies which happen in the private domain and affect entire regions. There is a strong solidarity on behalf of fellow citizens affected by natural tragedies such as a tsunami or flooding.

Modern welfare systems help countless people in distress or with special needs. From a scientific and diaconal perspective, however, one will also want to tend to the poorest of the poor, to the people on the fringes of society, to the fellow citizens who lead hidden lives in the twilight zones unnoticed by others. Poverty, HIV et cetera, are well known, but at the same time are they neither adequately represented in public life and discourse, nor is there an adequate response to such evils.

In order to identify and comprehend social predicaments, the first step is to promote their visibility. If we take the example of poverty, this means making visible the enormous extent and implications of poverty, publicising the multi-layered problems of those who are typically thrown together under the collective term poor.

The collective term suggests a loss of respect for the individual and a contempt for and failure to notice the individual predicaments of those thus labelled. While both individual situations of hardship and discourses of scandalisation appear in the media from time to time, these only produce periodic, short-lived expressions of deep sorrow. In principle, such processes are also subject to complicated entanglements between the public arena of politics and the media in which 'whatever is not communicated socially, does not exist in a way' Maaser One could also say that only the hardship which is displayed and noticed in the public arena is actually perceived as existing in society.

Whoever is not placed at the forefront of public attention in this way will not be provided with adequate attention and care. Thus, diaconal action as expression of Christian love in complex societies not only means meeting someone's basic needs, but can also mean to learn to perceive the hardship, to look for and to find the suffering neighbour in the first place.

Michael Winkler recognises new forms and 'formations of isolation', even for rich societies such as the Federal Republic of Germany: active isolation is being replaced by the social invisibility of the isolated. The dilemmas of entire segments of society are not being addressed. And finally, the isolation itself moves 'out of focus while being watched. It becomes visible as distress, which is being overlooked at the same time' Winkler As a result, the isolated are 'right in the middle of things, but even less worth than socially worthless: they are, quite literally, existences that don't exist' Winkler Perhaps a parable can be applied to this situation.

Like the shepherd who seeks the one lost sheep Mt , diaconal action as expression of Christian love seeks those who are lost in the confusion of modern societies; it goes to the fringes of the social order, and crosses boundaries in order to find those whose fate remains unmentioned within the grey zones and rifts of differentiated societies.

It is worth pointing out in passing that this has consequences for the church as well: We must step out of the walls of our own church community towards a form of community work that reaches out. The option for the excluded becomes real in the street, not in sacred halls cf.

Richard Gustavo Gutierrez has also indicated that 'to be a neighbour' does not say anything about physical closeness, but is an active act: '[T ]he result of taking action, of approaching. Political aspects of love as an expression of the diaconal dimension of the church. At the social level, however, the answer to this question is not so apparent at all.

The way it is answered is already a factor in itself, which decides upon social hardship see discussion below on who defines what poverty is. Churches often react and help those whose situation cries out for help cf. Of course, this is a very valuable contribution which is to be acknowledged. However, I noted above that social hardship is not as obvious as one might imagine. Therefore the questions: 'Who interprets social emergencies?

Here love has a specific function and - at the same time -reaches a significant limit. Firstly, with regard to its specific function: Love now requires 'developing or newly implementing a sensorium for the disadvantaged people of the legal systems', by taking the neighbour's concrete needs into account, and by being oriented towards the neighbour's best interests Schmidt Love wants to perceive the other as fellow creature, as human being, whom God loves and who is entrusted to us as a human being in order to love him.

Love will treat the legal system from the perspective of the disadvantaged by means of this sensorium, thus becoming a critical corrective to such a system Schmidt This is the specific function of love in the formation of and the debate about the provision of modern social services. In other words: Christian love will insist that social participation of excluded people will be achieved step by step. This requires that the diaconal dimension of the church as expression of Christian love always has to be political as well.

This insight is not anything new. The Old Testament had already formulated the knowledge that love always remains associated with the acting subject; but it also conveys the idea that the law constitutes the right of the person concerned, of the potential victim.

This still holds true today. Caring for people in need is a characteristic of Christian love. This love presses for addressing the causes of social despair, and therefore will always have to become politically active as well, if for no other reason than to make despair publicly visible. As a result, diaconal acting as expression of this love cannot be confined to the church of Jesus or to acts of mercy. This is a significant limit of love or of acts of mercy out of love. Rather, '[t ]he love of today is the justice of tomorrow' Wolf Love must get involved politically for the benefit of the ones affected in order to safeguard their rights and to retain their dignity.

What does such a political-diaconal commitment look like that is close to the affected people? To illustrate this I would like to turn to an example from Austria, to a campaign waged by the Diaconia of Austria: 'We aren't humble petitioners, we want respect! This was the message of the participants to Austria's first meeting of people in poverty.